" In the age of artificial intelligence, predicting which jobs will fall to automation is as much about what machines can do as it is about what they can’t.
More than half of all jobs in America — both blue and white-collar — are resistant to automation, according to an acclaimed study published in 2013 by two Oxford University researchers.
Co-author Carl Benedikt Frey, who directs Oxford’s Technology and Employment program, broke down three areas where human intelligence still beats artificial intelligence: perception and manipulation, social intelligence; and creativity. Each type has what Frey calls a “bottleneck,” which slows the pace at which certain workforces can be automated.
Women disproportionately hold the jobs at highest risk of automation, according to Molly Kinder, who studies the future of work at a D.C. think tank called Work, Workers and Technology.
“That’s not really being talked about,” Kinder said. “And that’s in part because women are overrepresented in some of these marginalized occupations like a cashier or a fast-food worker, and also in a large numbers in clerical jobs in offices.”
“There’s real pain involved,” Bessen said. “There’s a real question about how these gains get distributed, about who’s suffering, who’s bearing the brunt in these transitions.”"
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